Frida Kahlo: Vida y obra

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Wilhelm (Guillermo) Kahlo, Frida’s father, is born.

Wilhelm (Guillermo) Kahlo, Frida’s father, is born.

On October 26, Carl Wilhelm Kahlo is born in Pforzheim, Baden, Germany. He is the third child, the youngest, and the only son. His mother is Henriette and his father, Jakob, a jeweler and businessman. Both his parents are Lutherans.

Matilde Calderón, Frida’s mother, is born.

Matilde Calderón, Frida’s mother, is born.

On July 5, Matilde Calderón is born in Mexico City. She is the daughter of Antonio Calderón, a photographer of indigenous ancestry, and Isabel González, a descendant of a Spanish general.

Diego Rivera and his twin brother are born.

Diego Rivera and his twin brother are born.

On December 8, the twins Diego María and Carlos María Rivera Barrientos are born in Guanajuato. They are the sons of Diego Rivera Acosta, a schoolteacher with a liberal background, and María del Pilar Barrientos, a devout, conservative woman. The young Carlos dies at the age of two and Diego is raised as an only child.

The Del Carmen neighborhood, the barrio where Frida will live, is inaugurated.

The Del Carmen neighborhood, the barrio where Frida will live, is inaugurated.

In October 1890, president Porfirio Díaz and his wife, Carmen Romero, inaugurate a new residential neighborhood for Mexico City near the town of Coyoacán. In honor of the first lady, it is named the Del Carmen neighborhood.

Wilhelm Kahlo arrives in Mexico and changes his name to Guillermo.

Wilhelm Kahlo arrives in Mexico and changes his name to Guillermo.

At the age of 19, the young Wilhelm (Guillermo) Kahlo comes to Mexico with his father’s financial support.

Guillermo Kahlo marries for the first time, but after a few years is left a widower.

Guillermo Kahlo marries for the first time, but after a few years is left a widower.

Guillermo Kahlo weds the Mexican, María Cardeña, with whom he has three daughters: María Luisa (1894), María (who dies at birth, 1896), and Margarita (1897). María Cardeña dies when giving birth to their last daughter.

Guillermo Kahlo marries Matilde Calderón.

Guillermo Kahlo marries Matilde Calderón.

On February 21, Matilde and Guillermo are married in the Catholic Church; six years later, they will wed in a civil ceremony. Although Guillermo is not Catholic, he respects “Mexican customs,” and above all, Matilde’s deep religious beliefs.

Matilde, the first daughter, is born to the Kahlo Calderón family.

Matilde, the first daughter, is born to the Kahlo Calderón family.

Matilde, Frida’s sister eight years her elder, is born. Matilde will take care of Frida when she is sick and will oversee the correspondence with various physicians. In the final years of the artist’s life, Matilde writes to Dr. Leo Eloesser and confesses to him that Frida is living “torment, as if she were lying on broken glass.”

Adriana, Frida’s sister, is born.

Adriana, Frida’s sister, is born.

Adriana, the second daughter of the Kahlo Calderón family, is born. In 1926, during her early years as a painter, Frida will paint a portrait of her sister. The current whereabouts of this work are unknown, but it already reveals the artist’s visual ability.

Guillermo builds a home for his family in Coyoacán that will later be known as the Casa Azul or Blue House.

Guillermo builds a home for his family in Coyoacán that will later be known as the Casa Azul or Blue House.

With his inheritance from his father, Guillermo builds his house on an 800 m2 (8611 square ft.) piece of property. It is on Calle de Londres at the corner of Allende, in the Del Carmen neighborhood. That same year, the Kahlo Calderón family move in.

Guillermo Kahlo is named the official photographer of monuments.

Guillermo Kahlo is named the official photographer of monuments.

The treasury minister of that time appoints Guillermo Kahlo as photographer of “churches under federal jurisdiction.” Thanks to his talent, he is soon granted recognition as “official photographer of monuments.”

Frida Kahlo is born.

Frida Kahlo is born.

On July 6, Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo Calderón, the third daughter of the Kahlo Calderón family, is born in Coyoacán.

Cristina, Frida’s younger sister, is born.

Cristina, Frida’s younger sister, is born.

Cristina, the youngest of the Kahlo Calderón sisters and the closest to Frida, is born. Frida’s pet name for her is Kitty. Cristina’s children—Isolda and Antonio—have a close relationship with the painter.

The Mexican Revolution breaks out.

The Mexican Revolution breaks out.

The Mexican Revolution breaks out. Although Frida was born three years earlier, it is often said her birthdate coincides with that of the armed movement. In her diary, Frida recalls that her family sometimes aided wounded revolutionaries.

Frida contracts polio.

Frida contracts polio.

At the age of six, Frida contracts polio. As a result, her right leg will be short and thin. Nevertheless, Frida is a restless, active child. Her father encourages her to do sports to strengthen her right leg.

Frida enrolls in high school at the National Preparatory School.

Frida enrolls in high school at the National Preparatory School.

Frida wants to study Medicine, so she enrolls in the National Preparatory School. She is one of thirty-five girls in a student body of 2,000 boys. At that time, to help her family, Frida works at a lumberyard, recording entries and exits. In her father’s photographic studio, she also learns how to color photos by hand with a brush.

Frida joins “The Cachuchas.”

Frida joins “The Cachuchas.”

Frida joins the student group known as “The Cachuchas” (caps), composed of seven male and two female students. They include Alejandro Gómez Arias, who becomes her boyfriend, and Carmen Jaime, who will be her close friend. They share a love for reading, leftist political views, and the cap identifying their group.

Frida leaves school for a while.

Frida leaves school for a while.

The political climate becomes complicated with an uprising against president Álvaro Obregón. Frida’s mother, concerned about the lack of security, prohibits her from going to school. Frida cannot see her boyfriend, Alejandro Gómez Arias, and “The Cachuchas,” and cannot attend classes.

Frida is in a serious accident that will forever mark her life.

Frida is in a serious accident that will forever mark her life.

On September 17, Frida is seriously injured in a traffic accident. The bus she was riding with Alejandro was unable to slow down and was struck by a streetcar. Frida spends a month in the Red Cross hospital, where her older sister, Matilde, visits her.

Frida paints her first self-portrait.

Frida paints her first self-portrait.

When she returns home from the hospital, Frida must remain bedridden for months. Her mother has a mirror put in the panel over her bed, and with the colors she asked her father to get, Frida begins to draw. Her parents also have an easel made that allows her to paint while lying down. Her first self-portrait is a gift for her boyfriend, Alejandro Gómez Arias.

Frida paints to help with her medical bills.

Frida paints to help with her medical bills.

Frida recovers enough to resume her social life. She continues to paint, now to earn money to help her parents pay her medical bills.

Frida begins a close relationship with Diego Rivera.

Frida begins a close relationship with Diego Rivera.

Frida joins the League of Young Communists. She becomes close friends with the Italian photographer, Tina Modotti, and is in close contact with the muralist, Diego Rivera.

Frida and Diego are married.

Frida and Diego are married.

On August 21, Frida weds Diego in the town council of Coyoacán. She is 22 and the muralist is slightly more than twenty years older. Frida’s mother is of the idea that the marriage is the union of “an elephant and a dove.”

Frida paints The Bus, a work referring to her accident.

Frida paints The Bus, a work referring to her accident.

Frida alludes to her accident in the painting The Bus, where she also depicts social classes in Mexico in the early twentieth century. Her wit and playful vision are reflected in her decision to draw, in the background, the cantina called La Risa (Laughter).

Frida has her first pregnancy.

Frida has her first pregnancy.

Living in Cuernavaca with Diego, Frida becomes pregnant. As a result of the aftereffects of her accident when she was 18, physicians have already warned her any pregnancy would be a considerable risk. So, she decides to get an abortion.

Diego pays the debt that hangs over the Kahlo household.

Diego pays the debt that hangs over the Kahlo household.

Diego pays off the mortgage that Guillermo Kahlo had taken out on the family home, and he puts the residence in Frida’s name. Her parents continue to live there.

Frida and Diego live for a while in San Francisco, California.

Frida and Diego live for a while in San Francisco, California.

In November, Diego and Frida move to San Francisco, where Rivera was invited to paint two murals. Frida does not speak English, but she learns it quickly. She meets Leo Eloesser, a prestigious physician in the United States. With leftist leanings, Eloesser becomes her primary physician and one of her best friends.

Frida poses for the earliest portraits that will immortalize her Mexican attire.

Frida poses for the earliest portraits that will immortalize her Mexican attire.

In California, Frida is professionally photographed by Edward Weston and Imogen Cunningham. These are the earliest portraits of the artist reflecting the Mexican image that will make her famous. Weston wrote: “[She is] petite,—a little doll alongside Diego, but a doll in size only, for she is strong and quite beautiful, shows very little of her father’s German blood. Dressed in native costume even to huaraches, she causes much excitement in the streets of San Francisco. People stop in their tracks to look in wonder.”

Frida travels to Mexico City, where she meets photographer Nickolas Muray.

Frida travels to Mexico City, where she meets photographer Nickolas Muray.

In May, Frida goes to Mexico City. Caricaturist Miguel Covarrubias and his wife, dancer Rosa Rolanda, introduce her to Hungarian photographer Nickolas Muray, who is visiting. Kahlo and Muray begin a romantic relationship that will last about ten years and that later will become a deep friendship.

Frida paints her canvas Frieda and Diego Rivera.

Frida paints her canvas Frieda and Diego Rivera.

Residing in San Francisco, Frida paints Frieda and Diego Rivera, which represents their wedding. In the inscribed band held by a small bird, she inserts the dedication of the canvas, reminiscent of the inscriptions on the ex-votos she collected. This work by Kahlo is in the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.

Frida and Diego return to Mexico, where they meet filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein.

Frida and Diego return to Mexico, where they meet filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein.

Frida and Diego return to Mexico on June 8, so that Rivera can finish the murals in the National Palace. The artists coincide with the acclaimed Russian filmmaker, Sergei Eisenstein, who is in the country filming Viva México (Long Live Mexico).

Frida and Diego briefly live in New York.

Frida and Diego briefly live in New York.

By the end of the year, Frida and Diego are living in New York, because of the one-man exhibition Rivera will have in the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Diego paints eight murals in this city. Frida becomes friends with the Swiss-American artista, muralist, and photographer, Lucienne Bloch, who professionally collaborates with Rivera. The only extant images of Man at the Crossroads—the work that Diego paints in Rockefeller Center and that is destroyed—are by Bloch.

Diego and Frida move to Detroit, Michigan.

Diego and Frida move to Detroit, Michigan.

Frida and Diego move to Detroit, Michigan, in April, for Rivera’s mural work. Frida now fluently speaks English and is often photographed, given her appealing image. When people ask if she is also a painter, she responds “yes,” now embracing her role as an artist.

Frida paints her Self-Portrait (on the Border between Mexico and the United States).

Frida paints her Self-Portrait (on the Border between Mexico and the United States).

In Self-Portrait (on the Border between Mexico and the United States), Frida positions herself on an imaginary borderline, split between two realities: that of her country, where nature and traditions thrive, but that is also critical, and the visión of the neighboring country, dominated by machines and industrialization.

Frida paints Frida and the Cesarean (unfinished).

Frida paints Frida and the Cesarean (unfinished).

Although Frida never had a cesarean, the canvas alludes to the possibility posited by her physicians when she got pregnant a second time: that she, when the baby had grown enough, could give birth via a cesarean.

In July, Frida paints Henry Ford Hospital (The Flying Bed).

In July, Frida paints Henry Ford Hospital (The Flying Bed).

In her work Hospital Henry Ford, Frida captures the traumatic experience of her second miscarriage. The feeling of loss is present in several of the works she does this year. This is so much the case that the first title of this canvas is The Lost Desire. Frida paints this scene on sheet metal, like one of the many ex-votos that she collected.

Frida travels to Mexico to see her ailing mother.

Frida travels to Mexico to see her ailing mother.

In September, Frida receives news that her mother is seriously ill. She decides to go to Mexico, accompanied by her friend, muralst-photographer Lucienne Bloch.

Frida’s mother dies.

Frida’s mother dies.

On September 15, Matilde Calderón, Frida’s mother, dies at the age of 58, from complications after gallbladder surgery. The artista loses the person who taught her a love for sewing, fabrics, and their textures.

Frida and Diego move to New York, where Rivera paints the controversial Rockefeller Center mural.

Frida and Diego move to New York, where Rivera paints the controversial Rockefeller Center mural.

Frida and Diego move back to New York for work. There, Rivera plans the controversial Rockefeller Center mural. After he paints the face of Lenin on the wall, Rockefeller asks Diego to remove what he regards as a provocation. Frida participates alongside Rivera in protest marches when the work is shut down and destroyed. In addition, she supports the written struggle by drafting pamphlets and communiqués, and giving her opinión in newspapers.

Frida paints the unfinished canvas, New York.

Frida paints the unfinished canvas, New York.

Although unfinished, this sketch reveals Frida’s stance on the United States. In some of her works, Kahlo offers a critique on the neighboring country’s visión of the world. Nevertheless, she forged close friendships with American artists and figures, such as Dr. Leo Eloesser and photographer Nickolas Muray.

Frida paints My Dress Hangs Here (There Hangs My Dress/Allá cuelga mi vestido).

Frida paints My Dress Hangs Here (There Hangs My Dress/Allá cuelga mi vestido).

Frida paints My Dress Hangs Here during her stay in New York, while Diego tries to complete the controversial Rockefeller Center mural. In this canvas, Frida uses paint and newspaper and magazine clippings to form an avant-garde collage critical of reality.

Frida and Diego move into their house in San Angel.

Frida and Diego move into their house in San Angel.

Frida and Diego move into their house, designed by their friend, architect Juan O’Gorman, in San Angel. In that functionalist residence, a bridge connects Frida’s space to Diego’s.

Frida is hospitalized three times.

Frida is hospitalized three times.

Frida is hospitalized on three ocassions: to have her appendix removed; for a third miscarriage at three months of pregnancy; and to cure ulcers on her right foot. The artist writes to Dr. Eloesser, referring to her foot: "Nothing else can be done and one day I’m going to decide to have them cut it off so it won’t bother me so much.”/Ya no tiene remedio y un día voy a decidirme a que me lo corten para que ya no me fastidie tanto".

Frida meets sculptor Isamu Noguchi.

Frida meets sculptor Isamu Noguchi.

Frida meets Japanese-American sculptor Isamu Noguchi, with whom she has a brief affair. Isamu gives her a butterfly collection that is framed on the canopy of Frida’s bed in her night bedroom in the Casa Azul.

Frida paints Self-Portrait (with Curly Hair/pelo rizado).

Frida paints Self-Portrait (with Curly Hair/pelo rizado).

Frida paints her Self-Portrait (with Curly Hair/rizado) as a gift for writer and Diego’s biographer Bertram Wolfe, and his wife Ella. Frida spends time with the couple in New York to restore her spirit. The painter finds out about the romance between her sister, Cristina, and Diego.

Frida paints A Few Small Jabs/Unos cuantos piquetitos.

Frida paints A Few Small Jabs/Unos cuantos piquetitos.

Shocked/Moved by a report in the newspaper about a man declared he had murdered a woman for infidelity, Frida paints a canvas with an ironic title. It shows the influence of ex-votos, the lack of perspective, the arrangement of the figures in space, the band where Kahlo writes the scathing phrase denouncing the crime.

With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Frida and Diego seek aid for the Republicans.

With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Frida and Diego seek aid for the Republicans.

When the Spanish Civil War broke out on July 17, Frida and Diego show their support for the “reds” of the Republican faction. Alongside other intellectuals, Kahlo and Rivera form a economic aid committee for Spanish militia refugees in Mexico, facing the persecution of the Nationalists backing Franco.

Frida has another operation on her right foot.

Frida has another operation on her right foot.

Frida must have another operation on her right foot. Throughout her life, the artista has allies in various doctors: Dr. Díaz Infante, who treats her when she had the accident; Phillip D. Wilson, who operates on her in New York; Leo Eloesser, her “little doctor” with whom she has a close friendship; Juan Farrill, whom Frida thanks for giving her back “the joy of life”; and even Samuel Fastlicht, the dentist to whom Kahlo dedicates several works.

Frida exhibits at the Gallery of the Department of Social Action of the Autonomous University of Mexico.

Frida exhibits at the Gallery of the Department of Social Action of the Autonomous University of Mexico.

Frida participates with this work, My Grandparents, My Parents, and I (Genealogical Tree), in the inaugural exhibition in the Gallery of the Department of Art and Social Action of the Autonomous University of Mexico. This canvas is also exhibited in the gallery of Julian Levy, who invites the artist to exhibit in New York.

Frida paints Portrait of Alberto Misrachi.

Frida paints Portrait of Alberto Misrachi.

Alberto Misrachi and his wife, Anita, were very close friends of the Riveras. Misrachi was for them an art dealer, accountant, and banker. Frida paints this portrait of the renowned gallery owner, bookseller, and agent of/to/for the foremost painters of the time.

Frida and Diego receive Russian leader Leon Trotsky in their home.

Frida and Diego receive Russian leader Leon Trotsky in their home.

Thanks to Rivera’s intervention with president Lázaro Cárdenas, the Marxist intellectual, Russian revolutionary, Leon Trotsky, receives political asylum in Mexico. Invited by Frida and Diego, Leon and his wife, Natalia, live in the Casa Azul in Coyoacán for two years.

Frida appears in the October issue of Vogue magazine.

Frida appears in the October issue of Vogue magazine.

During September, American photographer Toni Frisell—well-known for his shots of models outdoors—has a photo shoot with Frida for Vogue magazine. The article, “Ladies of Mexico,” with the images that Frisell took of Kahlo, appear in the October issue.

Frida paints Fulang-Chang and Me.

Frida paints Fulang-Chang and Me.

Of the more than 150 recorded works by Frida, most are self-portraits. Fulang-Chang and Me is exhibited in the Julian Levy gallery in New York, marking a watershed in Kahlo’s career.

French writer André Breton comes to Mexico and is struck by Frida’s art.

French writer André Breton comes to Mexico and is struck by Frida’s art.

With the intention to interview Leon Trotsky, André Breton comes to Mexico with his wife, painter Jacqueline Lamba. The father of Surrealism, Breton finds similarities in Frida’s work with his movement and offers to promote Kahlo’s art internationally.

Frida and Diego travel with the Breton-Lamba and Trotsky-Sedova couples to cities in Mexico.

Frida and Diego travel with the Breton-Lamba and Trotsky-Sedova couples to cities in Mexico.

In July of that year, Jacqueline Lamba, André Breton, Leon Trotsky, Natalia Sedova, and Rivera-Kahlo take a road trip through Mexico, visiting cities like Guadalajara and Pátzcuaro.

Frida has her first solo exhibition in New York.

Frida has her first solo exhibition in New York.

In September, art dealer Julien Levy invites Frida to exhibit in his gallery in New York. Frida goes to the Big Apple in October. The display, curated by André Breton, is held in November. It is Kahlo’s first one-woman exhibition. The artist sells various paintings and her work receives excellent reviews in the printed media.

Frida paints The Four Inhabitants of Mexico City (The Zocalo Is His/Theirs zócalo es suyo).

Frida paints The Four Inhabitants of Mexico City (The Zocalo Is His/Theirs zócalo es suyo).

In the canvas The Four Inhabitants of Mexico City, Frida paints two papier mâché figures that she and Diego like/liked so much. The couple tends to commission these pieces to their head craftswoman: Carmen Caballero. Frida’s work recreates the plaza of Coyoacán, but it pays homage to contemporary folk art throughout Mexico.

Frida paints Ixcuhintli [sic] Dog with Me.

Frida paints Ixcuhintli [sic] Dog with Me.

Between 1937 and 1938 Frida does 20 paintings—more than she had ever painted in a single year—many of which she exhibits in New York. Ixcuhintli [sic] Dog with Me is one of those works. Noteworthy is the dark-colored dress in the portrait and the cigarette in her hand, still considered a male privilege at that time.

Frida paints The Suicide of Dorothy Hale.

Frida paints The Suicide of Dorothy Hale.

Frida hears of the suicide of American actress Dorothy Hale and, at the request of a friend of the mother of the young victim, she paints The Suicide of Dorothy Hale. In letters she writes to Diego, Frida describes the creative process of this work.

Frida is photographed by her friends Julien Levy and Nickolas Muray.

Frida is photographed by her friends Julien Levy and Nickolas Muray.

From November 1938 to February 1939, Frida lives in New York. There, with her friends Julien Levy and Nickolas Muray, they shoot several of the most iconic photos of the painter.

Frida goes to Paris to exhibit some of her paintings.

Frida goes to Paris to exhibit some of her paintings.

In January of this year, Frida goes to Paris at the invitation of André Breton to exhibit in the City of Light. Frida meets Breton’s Surrealist circle of friends and is open to European avant-garde movements.

Marcel Duchamp helps Frida exhibit in Paris.

Marcel Duchamp helps Frida exhibit in Paris.

Marcel Duchamp, now regarded as an art genius, makes Frida’s exhibition posible in the Galería Renou et Colle, in the center of Paris. Frida falls ill and must be hozpitalized.

After the Mexique exhibition, the Musée du Louvre buys one of Frida’s works.

After the Mexique exhibition, the Musée du Louvre buys one of Frida’s works.

On March 10, the Mexique exhibition is inaugurated in Paris. Frida receives congratulations from Pablo Picasso, Wassily Kandinsky, and Marcel Duchamp, among other well-known artists. The French government buys the self-portrait The Frame from Frida. Today this work is part of the permanente exhibition in the Centre Pompidou in the City of Light.

Frida is invited to exhibit in London, but she rejects the offer because war is imminent.

Frida is invited to exhibit in London, but she rejects the offer because war is imminent.

American art collector Peggy Guggenheim, whom Frida meets in Paris, invites Kahlo to exhibit in London. The painter rejects the offer given the political situation in Europe. On March 25, Frida leaves Europe, setting sail for New York, where she stays a few days and then returns to Mexico. World War II breaks out in September.

Frida paints What the Water Has Given to Me.

Frida paints What the Water Has Given to Me.

In her canvas What the Water Has Given Me, Frida fills a bathtub with symbols to show her life experiences. Roots, a dress, a volcano, birds, insects, a building, her parents, a corpse float in an aquatic world, full of intellectual riddles/puzzles. Her ailment is portrayed in the would in her right foot.

Frida and Diego get divorced.

Frida and Diego get divorced.

On November 6, Frida and Diego are officially divorced, although they has been separated for some time. Also, Kahlo’s romance with Muray ends, for the photographer feels that Frida will always find an excuse to return to Coyoacán and to Rivera. "I love you and I always will/Te amo y siempre lo haré," she declares to Nick in her farewell letter. Nevertheless, their friendship will last for years.

Kahlo paints one of her most famous works: The Two Fridas.

Kahlo paints one of her most famous works: The Two Fridas.

Kahlo paints The Two Fridas, a canvas that shows the painter’s origins through attire: the European legacy and the Mexican tradition, joined heart to heart. Frida paints this double self-portrait—which are rare in the history of art—to participate in the fourth “International Surrealist Exhibition.” Today the painting is part of the collection of the Museo de Arte Moderno, in Mexico City.

Frida participates in several international exhibitions.

Frida participates in several international exhibitions.

Frida’s career is at a peak and her canvases are included in several international exhibitions. One of the works exhibited this year is The Wounded Table, unusual for Kahlo’s style for its large dimensions and for having been painted on wood panel. In 1945, Frida will donate The Wounded Table to the Soviet Union, but the canvas disappears after it is exhibited in Poland in the 1950s.

Leon Trotsky is assassinated.

Leon Trotsky is assassinated.

On August 21, the Russian leader Leon Trotsky is assassinated by the Spanish Communist militant, Ramón Mercader. Frida is interrogated for twelve hours and spends two days in jail with her sister Cristina.

Frida paints Self-Portrait with Monkey and Ribbon on Her Neck.

Frida paints Self-Portrait with Monkey and Ribbon on Her Neck.

The resemblance between the position in this work of Frida’s fase and the head of her monkey is noteworthy. The animal’s fur blurs with the painter’s hair and a red ribbon/lazo joins the artista to her pet.

Frida paints Self-Portrait (dedicated to Dr. Leo Eloesser).

Frida paints Self-Portrait (dedicated to Dr. Leo Eloesser).

In this work, a necklace of thorns wounds the painter’s neck, while the earring that Pablo Picasso gave her adorns her ear. Frida dedicates this canvas to her friend, Dr. Leo Eloesser, with whom she will share a friendship until her final days.

Frida paints Self-Portrait with Necklace of Thorns and Hummingbird./Autorretrato con collar de espinas y colibrí.

Frida paints Self-Portrait with Necklace of Thorns and Hummingbird./Autorretrato con collar de espinas y colibrí.

Frida paints Self-Portrait with Necklace of Thorns and Hummingbird, which reflects her emotional condition after her divorce. The cat in this Kahlo painting recalls the image that Hungarian photographer Martin Munkácsi took of that animal. We have this celebrated photo in the Casa Azul archives.

Frida paints Self-Portrait with Short Hair.

Frida paints Self-Portrait with Short Hair.

Frida paints Self-Portrait with Short Hair, a work that marks a radical change in the painter’s life after her divorce from Diego. With her typical irreverence, Kahlo transcribes the lines of a popular song: “Look that if I loved you it was for your hair. Noe that you’re bald, I love you no more.”/Mira que si te quise fue por el pelo. Ahora que estás pelona, ya no te quiero”.

Frida did a detailed drawing of what her house looked like.

Frida did a detailed drawing of what her house looked like.

Frida did this plan for one of the many guests received at the Casa Azul; in it she represented the animals that accompanied her, the corner where she was born, and the uses of the different areas of the house.

Frida and Diego get remarried.

Frida and Diego get remarried.

A year after their divorce, Frida remarries Diego in the city of San Francisco, California, on December 8. The painter captured the date of her divorce and her second wedding on the two ceramic clocks on display in the Casa Azul.

Frida and muralist Emmy Lou Packard become friends.

Frida and muralist Emmy Lou Packard become friends.

During this calm year for Frida and Diego, the printmaker and muralist Emmy Lou Packard lives with them. Emmy and Frida become close Friends and they stroll through the Casa Azul gardens along with various pets: Bonito the parakeet, the dogs Capulina and Señor Xólotl, Fulang-Chang the monkey, Granizo the deer, cats, tortoises, ducks, and geese; this entire menagerie lives amidst the typical vegetation of the zone.

Frida paints Self-Portrait (Me and My Parakeets/Yo y mis pericos).

Frida paints Self-Portrait (Me and My Parakeets/Yo y mis pericos).

Remarried, Kahlo and Rivera agree on a more independent life. The artista continues creating. She paints Self-Portrait (Me and my Parakeets). Frida depicts herself many times with her pets, and in several canvases she represents them in pairs.

Guillermo Kahlo dies.

Guillermo Kahlo dies.

On April 14, Guillermo Kahlo, Frida’s father, dies of a heart attack. Guillermo was living with his daughter, Matilde, in a house also in Coyoacán.

Frida exhibits in the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston.

Frida exhibits in the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston.

Frida exhibits in the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston, in the state of Massachusetts. The museum had been founded a few years earlier, in 1936, as a space to exhibit art today.

Construction begins on the Anahuacalli.

Construction begins on the Anahuacalli.

In the early 1940s construction begins on the Museo Anahuacalli. Diego bequeathed it to the people of Mexico. He designed the museum to house his pre-Hispanic art collection, composed of more than 50 thousand pieces. Frida helped Rivera register many of the figures.

Frida paints Still Life.

Frida paints Still Life.

President Manuel Ávila Camacho commissions Frida to paint a still life for the dining room of the official residence. However, the first lady, Ana Soledad Orozco, finds the canvas overly suggestive and returns it to the artist. When it comes to light in 2004 in the Casa Azul’s vast holdings, a surprising discovery is made: a sketch that shows how Frida was inspired by medical monographs on the human womb in designing the frame for this Still Life.

Frida again exhibits her work in the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

Frida again exhibits her work in the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

Frida again exhibits her work in the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York, in the heart of Manhattan, and one of the foremost museums in the United States. Frida’s work Self-Portrait with Short Hair is in this museum’s collection.

Frida paints Self-Portrait as Tehuana or Diego on My Mind.

Frida paints Self-Portrait as Tehuana or Diego on My Mind.

In this work, the painter’s face is framed by a resplandor, a typical accessory in women’s attire from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. An image in the Casa Azul photo archive shows not only Frida’s taste for traditional garb, but also that of the women on her mother’s side of the family, who used to wear it.

Frida paints Self-Portrait (with Monkeys).

Frida paints Self-Portrait (with Monkeys).

Fulang-Chang and Caimito de Guayabal are Frida’s favorite monkeys. The artista paints herself with her spider monkeys on various occasions. The exuberant vegetation and the pose of her pets stand out in this canvas.

Frida gives classes to the group of Los Fridos.

Frida gives classes to the group of Los Fridos.

From 1942 Frida is a professor at the national art school, the Escuela Nacional de Pintura y Escultura “La Esmeralda.” Soon after, given her poor health, she must give the classes in her home. The four students who stay by her side will be known as Los Fridos: Fanny Rabel, Guillermo Monroy, Arturo García Bustos, and Arturo Estrada.

Frida exhibits her work in Philadelphia and New York.

Frida exhibits her work in Philadelphia and New York.

Frida’s artistic career continues to thrive. She exhibits at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and one of her self-portraits is on display at the Art of This Century gallery in an exhibition of women artists organized by art collector Peggy Guggenheim, in New York.

Diego publishes the text “Frida Kahlo and Mexican Art.”

Diego publishes the text “Frida Kahlo and Mexican Art.”

In the article "Frida Kahlo and Mexican Art," published by Diego Rivera in 1943, the muralist declares that Frida’s painting is “the best proof of the reality of the Renaissance of Mexican art.”

Frida paints The Broken Column.

Frida paints The Broken Column.

Frida paints one of her most well-known works: The Broken Column, where she shows her physical vulnerability, symbolized by the nails piercing her skin, the biggest near her heart. After multiple operations—by the end of her life she will have had 23 operations—her interior is upheld by a classical, but broken column. The arid, solitary background contrasts with the jungles full of animals that she represents in other self-portraits.

Frida begins to write her diary.

Frida begins to write her diary.

Frida begins to write, paint, and draw in a diary. Full of thoughts, reflections, poems, and notes, the diary covers to the last ten years of the artist’s life.

Frida gives Diego her canvas Diego and Frida (1929–1944).

Frida gives Diego her canvas Diego and Frida (1929–1944).

Frida paints Diego and Frida (1929–1944) as a gift for the muralist, on their fifteenth wedding anniversary. Frida plays with dualities—day-night, male-female—but she joins the figures with root vegetables that intertwine them into an indivisible entity. The painter does another almost identical version, with the inverted title: Frida and Diego (1929–1944).

Frida paints Moses or Nuclear Sun.

Frida paints Moses or Nuclear Sun.

Frida paints the canvas Moses or The Birth of the Hero, after having read the book by the renowned psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud: Moses and Monotheism. Engineer José Domingo Lavín Revilla, Frida’s friend and patron, had lent her the volumen and asked her to paint her own interpretation. In this work, despite its small format, Kahlo imitates the layout of the mural painting. The canvas will be displayed in 1946 at the Palacio de Bellas Artes, in Mexico City, with the title Nuclear Sun.

Juan O’Gorman expands the Casa Azul.

Juan O’Gorman expands the Casa Azul.

In what was once the patio and service rooms in the Casa Azul, Frida and Diego ask their friend, architect Juan O’Gorman, to add an extension to the house. With O’Gorman’s design, the patio of pots, Frida’s studio, and bedrooms for the painter are built.

Frida has spinal column surgery.

Frida has spinal column surgery.

Frida goes to New York, where doctors perform a spinal fusion. She spends more than sixty days in hospital and on her return to Mexico, she must wear a steel corset for eight months.

Frida paints The Little Deer or The Wounded Deer or Karma.

Frida paints The Little Deer or The Wounded Deer or Karma.

Her back problems continue, as well as Frida’s difficulty in walking. She then paints The Little Deer as a wedding gift for her friend, film director Arcady Boytler, and his wife Lina. The word Karma is written beside the painter’s signature.

Frida paints Tree of Hope Remain Strong.

Frida paints Tree of Hope Remain Strong.

In her work Tree of Hope Remain Strong, Frida again addresses dualities: day and night, health and sickness. The artist portrays herself free, holding a corset. The painting’s title underscores that hope that keeps her alive.

Frida is awarded honorable mention for her work Moses.

Frida is awarded honorable mention for her work Moses.

The Office of the President of the Republic and the Ministry of Public Education grant Frida honorable mention in the National Sciences and Arts Prize for her work Moses. Kahlo is the only honoree with this mention, bestowed in a special move for the quality of her work.

Frida paints My Family (unfinished).

Frida paints My Family (unfinished).

In My Family (unfinished), Frida draws the genealogical tree of her maternal ancestors, of Mexican origin, and her paternal family, of Hungarian-German ancestry. By this time, the painter’s parents had already died and in the canvas they join the grandparents in a cloud in the sky. Kahlo also portrays her sisters and includes the enigmatic presence of a baby, perhaps Frida’s brother who died before she was born.

Frida paints The Love Embrace of the Universe, the Earth (Mexico), Myself, Diego, and Mr. Xólotl.

Frida paints The Love Embrace of the Universe, the Earth (Mexico), Myself, Diego, and Mr. Xólotl.

In this work, Frida again contrasts and reconciles opposites. The maternal pose with which she holds a small Diego speaks of the care and protection she always gives him. The Earth that embraces the figures represents Frida’s awareness of her identity, of belonging to Mexico, its traditions and landscapes. She participates in the inaugural exhibition of the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana with this canvas.

Frida’s health declines and she is hospitalized repeatedly.

Frida’s health declines and she is hospitalized repeatedly.

Frida spends almost a year in and out of the Centro Médico ABC in Mexico City, known at that time as the British Hospital. At this stage, she has seven operations on her spinal column and two toes of her right foot are amputated. The artist must spend ever longer periods in bed, on her back, the position she is now accustomed to for painting.

Frida’s friends often pay her visits.

Frida’s friends often pay her visits.

Given her state of health, she can rarely go out, so her friends visit Frida at home to entertain her and make her laugh. Among them are celebrities such as the actress Dolores del Río, the singer Jorge Negrete, and the actress María Félix. Frida begins to Paint exuberant still lifes.

Frida paints Still Life (“I Belong to Samuel Fastlicht”).

Frida paints Still Life (“I Belong to Samuel Fastlicht”).

Frida paints Still Life, a canvas featuring nationalistic elements. Still lifes were among her preferred subjects, after self-portraits and portraits, and they became more frequent in works from her later years. Frida paints this canvas for her dentist, Dr. Samuel Fastlicht, in payment for dental treatments.

Despite her declining health, Frida continues to paint.

Despite her declining health, Frida continues to paint.

Despite her deteriorating health, Frida works whenever she has enough energy, and she continues selling her work.

Frida paints Portrait of My Father, Guillermo Kahlo.

Frida paints Portrait of My Father, Guillermo Kahlo.

Frida paints Portrait of My Father, Guillermo Kahlo, using a photo of her father in his youth as a reference point. They had always had an extremely close relationship. A photographer by profession, Guillermo was also very fond of self-portraits. He was the one who taught his daughter to look straight at the camera with determination.

Given her delicate health, Frida needs full-time nurses.

Given her delicate health, Frida needs full-time nurses.

Frida’s health worsens and the artist must stay at home: her physical mobility diminishes day by day. The painter needs full-time nurses, who included Cornelia Mayet, of indigenous descent, and later, Judith Ferreto of Costa Rica.

Frida’s work is featured in the exhibition "Mexican Art: From the Pre-Columbian Period to the Present."

Frida’s work is featured in the exhibition "Mexican Art: From the Pre-Columbian Period to the Present."

Frida’s work is on display in the exhibition "Mexican Art: From the Pre-Columbian Period to the Present,” which was presented at the Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris, the Tate Gallery in London, and the Liljevalchs Konsthall (art museum) in Stockholm.

Frida and some of Los Fridos paint the murals at La Rosita.

Frida and some of Los Fridos paint the murals at La Rosita.

The pulque bar La Rosita is located on the Street of Londres and Aguayo, a few blocks from the Casa Azul. Frida and her students had already painted the walls of that spot in 1943. In 1952 they decide to carry out street art, and the artist, along with two of Los Fridos—Arturo García Bustos and Arturo Estrada—repaint the murals. Kahlo goes on crutches to supervise the work of her followers.

The photographer Lola Álvarez Bravo organizes an exhibition of Frida’s work.

The photographer Lola Álvarez Bravo organizes an exhibition of Frida’s work.

The photographer Lola Álvarez Bravo organizes an exhibition of Frida’s work in her Galería de Arte Contemporáneo, the only one-woman exhibition in Mexico that Kahlo had in her life. Given concerns about the the artist’s health, the exhibition opens on April 13. Frida arrives in an ambulance and participates in the event while lying in a hospital bed.

Half of Frida’s right leg is amputated.

Half of Frida’s right leg is amputated.

In August, gangrene sets in on Frida’s leg. Her right leg is amputated from the knee down. She writes in her diary the famous phrase: “Feet, what do I need you for if I have wings to fly.”

Frida paints Marxism Will Give Health to the Sick (unfinished).

Frida paints Marxism Will Give Health to the Sick (unfinished).

Extremely ill, Frida paints Marxism Will Give Health to the Sick. This canvas is a declaration of political principles. The painter clings to political militancy to overcome her physical discomfort. Under the effects of strong medicines, the artist’s brushstrokes begin to lose precision and reflect her deteriorating health. The work remains unfinished.

Frida attends a protest against United States intervention in Guatemala.

Frida attends a protest against United States intervention in Guatemala.

In June, Frida is hospitalized for a case of pneumonia. During her convalescence and disobeying the doctor’s orders, she attends the protest against United States intervention in Guatemala. On July 2, she is photographed in her wheelchair, raising her left fist in the air, with Diego Rivera by her side.

Frida dies at the age of 47.

Frida dies at the age of 47.

On July 13, at the age of 47, Frida dies. Days before her death, in her canvas with watermelons, she writes the phrase “Viva la Vida” (Long Live Life), thus naming the work and leaving a final testimony to her resilience and hope.

Mi arte, Mi vida. Diego Rivera y Gladys March.

Mi arte, Mi vida. Diego Rivera y Gladys March.

Mi arte, Mi vida. Diego Rivera y Gladys March. Editorial Herrero SA. México.

Diego Rivera: The Shaping of an Artist.

Diego Rivera: The Shaping of an Artist.

Diego Rivera: The Shaping of an Artist. Florence Arquin. University of Oklahoma. EE.UU.

Cuarenta siglos de arte mexicano.

Cuarenta siglos de arte mexicano.

Cuarenta siglos de arte mexicano. Westheim, Paul. Herrero. México.

Pintura colonial en México.

Pintura colonial en México.

Pintura colonial en México. Toussaint, Manuel. UNAM. México.

Frida: una biografía de Frida Kahlo.

Frida: una biografía de Frida Kahlo.

Frida: una biografía de Frida Kahlo. Herrera, Hayden. Diana. México.

Diego Rivera: los murales en la Secretaría de Educación Pública.

Diego Rivera: los murales en la Secretaría de Educación Pública.

Diego Rivera: los murales en la Secretaría de Educación Pública. Luis Cardoza y Aragón. Ediciones Secretaría de Educación Pública. México.

Diego Rivera: pintura de caballete y dibujos.

Diego Rivera: pintura de caballete y dibujos.

Diego Rivera: pintura de caballete y dibujos. Olivier Debroise. Fondo Nacional de la Plástica Mexicana. México.

Hermenegildo Bustos: pintor de pueblo.

Hermenegildo Bustos: pintor de pueblo.

Hermenegildo Bustos: pintor de pueblo. Tibol, Raquel y Bustos, Hermenegildo. Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes. México.

Frida Kahlo. Una vida, una obra.

Frida Kahlo. Una vida, una obra.

Frida Kahlo. Una vida, una obra. Monsiváis, Carlos y Bayod Vázquez, Rafael. Ediciones Era. México.

La Fabulosa Vida de Diego Rivera.

La Fabulosa Vida de Diego Rivera.

La Fabulosa Vida de Diego Rivera. Bertram D. Wolfe. Editorial Diana. México.

Encuentros con Diego Rivera.

Encuentros con Diego Rivera.

Encuentros con Diego Rivera. Juan Coronel Rivera. Editorial : SIGLO XXI Editores. México.

Mexican Muralists.

Mexican Muralists.

Mexican Muralists. Rochfort Desmond. Editorial Limusa. México.

Repertorio de artistas en México: artes plásticas y decorativas.

Repertorio de artistas en México: artes plásticas y decorativas.

Repertorio de artistas en México: artes plásticas y decorativas. Tovar de Teresa, Guillermo. Grupo Financiero Bancomer. México.

Arte popular mexicano: cinco siglos.

Arte popular mexicano: cinco siglos.

Arte popular mexicano: cinco siglos. Sáenz, Olga / Colegio de San Idefonso. Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso. México.

La crítica de arte en México en el siglo XIX.

La crítica de arte en México en el siglo XIX.

La crítica de arte en México en el siglo XIX. Rodríguez Prampolini, Ida. UNAM / Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas. México.

Grandes maestros del arte popular mexicano.

Grandes maestros del arte popular mexicano.

Grandes maestros del arte popular mexicano. Banco de México. Fomento Cultural Banamex. México.

El arte ritual de la muerte niña.

El arte ritual de la muerte niña.

El arte ritual de la muerte niña. Artes de México y del Mundo, S.A. de C.V. México.

Los murales de Diego Rivera: Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo.

Los murales de Diego Rivera: Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo.

Los murales de Diego Rivera: Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo. Raquel Tibol. Editorial RM. México.

La colección de pintura del Banco Nacional de México: catálogo, siglo XX, Volumenes 1 y 2.

La colección de pintura del Banco Nacional de México: catálogo, siglo XX, Volumenes 1 y 2.

La colección de pintura del Banco Nacional de México: catálogo, siglo XX, Volumenes 1 y 2. Banco Nacional de México. Fomento Cultural Banamex. México.

La colección de pintura del Banco Nacional de México: catálogo, siglo XIX, Volumenes 1 y 2.

La colección de pintura del Banco Nacional de México: catálogo, siglo XIX, Volumenes 1 y 2.

La colección de pintura del Banco Nacional de México: catálogo, siglo XIX, Volumenes 1 y 2. Banco Nacional de México. Fomento Cultural Banamex. México.

Escrituras de Frida Kahlo.

Escrituras de Frida Kahlo.

Escrituras de Frida Kahlo. Compilación por Raquel Tibol. Editorial Plaza y Janes. México.

Nunca te olvidaré. De Frida Kahlo para Nicolás Muray.

Nunca te olvidaré. De Frida Kahlo para Nicolás Muray.

Nunca te olvidaré. De Frida Kahlo para Nicolás Muray. Salomon Grimberg. Editorial RM. México.

Frida Kahlo, detrás del espejo.

Frida Kahlo, detrás del espejo.

Frida Kahlo, detrás del espejo. Gerry Souter. Editorial Numen. Argentina.

Frida Kahlo, la metamorfosis de la imagen.

Frida Kahlo, la metamorfosis de la imagen.

Frida Kahlo, la metamorfosis de la imagen. Coronel Rivera, Juan Rafael y Ugalde Gómez, Nadia. RM. México.

Palabras ilustres: 1886-1921.

Palabras ilustres: 1886-1921.

Palabras ilustres: 1886-1921. Juan Rafael Coronel Rivera, et al. Editorial RM, México.

Palabras ilustres: 1921-1957.

Palabras ilustres: 1921-1957.

Palabras ilustres: 1921-1957. Juan Rafael Coronel Rivera, et al. Editorial RM, México.

Frida Kahlo. Homenaje nacional 1907-2007.

Frida Kahlo. Homenaje nacional 1907-2007.

Frida Kahlo. Homenaje nacional 1907-2007. Fuentes, Carlos, RM. México.

Homenaje a Diego Rivera.

Homenaje a Diego Rivera.

Homenaje a Diego Rivera. Editorial Azabache y Museo Dolores Olmedo Patiño. México.

El ropero de Frida.

El ropero de Frida.

El ropero de Frida. Denise Rosenzweig et all. Consejo Nacional de la Cultura y las Artes de Nuevo León. México.

Diego Rivera: Art & Revolution.

Diego Rivera: Art & Revolution.

Diego Rivera: Art & Revolution. Juan Rafael Coronel Rivera. Editorial Landucci. México.

Diego Rivera, gran ilustrador.

Diego Rivera, gran ilustrador.

Diego Rivera, gran ilustrador. Raquel Tibol. Editorial RM. México.

Diego Rivera, Obra Mural Completa.

Diego Rivera, Obra Mural Completa.

Diego Rivera, Obra Mural Completa. Juan Coronel Rivera y Luis Martín Lozano. Editorial Taschen. Italia.

Con la imagen en el espejo. El autoretrato literario de Frida Kahlo.

Con la imagen en el espejo. El autoretrato literario de Frida Kahlo.

Con la imagen en el espejo. El autoretrato literario de Frida Kahlo. Cristina Secci. Editorial Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México.

El muralismo de Orozco, Rivera y Siqueiros. Maricela González Cruz Manjarrez. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

El muralismo de Orozco, Rivera y Siqueiros. Maricela González Cruz Manjarrez. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

El muralismo de Orozco, Rivera y Siqueiros. Maricela González Cruz Manjarrez. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

México, la revolución del arte: 1910-1940.

México, la revolución del arte: 1910-1940.

México, la revolución del arte: 1910-1940. Adrian Locke. Editorial Turner. UK.

Fundación del muralismo mexicano: Textos inéditos de David Alfaro Siqueiros.

Fundación del muralismo mexicano: Textos inéditos de David Alfaro Siqueiros.

Fundación del muralismo mexicano: Textos inéditos de David Alfaro Siqueiros. Héctor Jaimes. SIGLO XXI Editores. México.

Frida Kahlo.

Frida Kahlo.

Frida Kahlo. Gannit Ankory. Editorial Reaktion Books. EE.UU.

El arte de dar gracias: los exvotos pictóricos de María del Rosario de Talpa.

El arte de dar gracias: los exvotos pictóricos de María del Rosario de Talpa.

El arte de dar gracias : los exvotos pictóricos de María del Rosario de Talpa. Agraz, Elin Luque. Centro de Cultura Casa Lamm. México.

Frida Kahlo: The Giséle Freund Photographs.

Frida Kahlo: The Giséle Freund Photographs.

Frida Kahlo: The Giséle Freund Photographs. Freund, Gisele y Harry N, Abrams. EE. UU.

Diego Rivera.

Diego Rivera.

Diego Rivera. Gerry Souter. Editorial: Parkstone International. EE.UU.

Tu hija Frida: Cartas a mamá.

Tu hija Frida: Cartas a mamá.

Tu hija Frida: Cartas a mamá. Editorial Siglo XXI Editores, S.A. de C.V. México.

Frida Kahlo, Making Herself Up.

Frida Kahlo, Making Herself Up.

Frida Kahlo, Making Herself Up. Libro-catálogo editado por The Victorian and Albert Museum. Inglaterra.

Rivera.

Rivera.

Rivera. Andrea Kettenman. Editorial Taschen. EE.UU.

Arte y arquitectura en México.

Arte y arquitectura en México.

Arte y arquitectura en México. James Oles. Editorial Penguin Random House, Grupo Editorial SA de CV. México.

México 1900 - 1950. Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, Jose Clemente Orozco y Las Vanguardias.

México 1900 - 1950. Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, Jose Clemente Orozco y Las Vanguardias.

Mexico 1900 - 1950. Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, Jose Clemente Orozco y Las Vanguardias. Instituto Nacional De Bellas Artes / Secretaria De Cultura. Ediciones El Viso. México.

Eclipse de siete lunas, mujeres muralistas en México.

Eclipse de siete lunas, mujeres muralistas en México.

Eclipse de siete lunas, mujeres muralistas en México. Dina Comisarenco Mirkin. Editorial Artes de México y del Mundo S.A. de C.V. México.

El muralismo mexicano: Mito y esclarecimiento.

El muralismo mexicano: Mito y esclarecimiento.

El muralismo mexicano: Mito y esclarecimiento. Eduardo Subirats. Editorial Fondo de Cultura Económica. México.

Los Murales de la Secretaría de Educación Pública: libro abierto al arte e identidad de México.

Los Murales de la Secretaría de Educación Pública: libro abierto al arte e identidad de México.

Los Murales de la Secretaría de Educación Pública: libro abierto al arte e identidad de México. Daniel Vargas Parra et all. Editado por la Secretaría de Educación Pública. México.

Vida Americana: Mexican Muralists Remake American Art, 1925-1945.

Vida Americana: Mexican Muralists Remake American Art, 1925-1945.

Vida Americana: Mexican Muralists Remake American Art, 1925-1945. Barbara Haskell. Editorial : Yale University Press; Edición Illustrated (10 marzo 2020).

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